If the Dharma-sûtra were the production of a different person and a later addition, the Pseudo-Âpastamba would most probably not have hit on this peculiar. The Dharmasutra of Āpastamba forms a part of the larger Kalpasūtra of Āpastamba. It contains thirty praśnas, which literally means ‘questions’. TITUS: Texts: Black Yajur-Veda: Apastamba-Dharmasutra: Frame>: Index>.

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Thus, a wife may make gifts and use the family wealth on her own when her husband is away A 2. Breaking the Vow of Chastity 17 A student who has broken his vow of chastity should sacrifice a donkey to Nirrti at a cross- road.

He who meditates on him, and everywhere and always lives according to his commandmentsand who, full of devotion, sees him who is difficult to be seen and subtle, will rejoice in his heaven. XXXIV Introduction which is the best preserved with the least tampering, has a total of 1, sutras. General Rules 6 Restrictive rules come into force from the time a person is initiated.

Further, it is possible.

The English pronunciation of these letters is closer to the Sanskrit retroflex, but the latter is pronounced with the tip of the tongue striking the roof of the mouth further back. Against the opinion of some that taking small amounts of fodder and the like does not constitute theft.

Streams with constantly flowing water do not become polluted, as also dust blown up by the wind. Acts Making a Man an Outcaste or Sordid 5 Social interaction with outcastes is not permitted, 6 as also with degraded people. In like manner, when a man follows the Law, he obtains, in addition, other benefits.

The term Hindu in these ancient records is a geographical term, the Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people who live across the River Indus. The distinction between these two groups apastanba texts is not altogether clear, since both deal with similar material; some of the Upanisads, such as the Aitareya, are embedded within their respective Aranyakas, while others, such as the Brhadaranyaka lit.


For this purpose Manu proclaimed 59 2.

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He may also avail himself of the flesh of animals killed by predators. Duties of a teacher Next the teacher’s conduct towards his pupil. Owners normally do not forbid someone from taking these. There is no equivalent single word translation for dharma in western languages, there have been numerous, conflicting attempts to translate ancient Sanskrit literature with the word dharma into German, English and French.

So, going around like a wheel, he remains happy in both worlds.


Thus, for example, the great grammatical treatise of Panini, composed probably apastambw the fourth century bce, became the standard Sanskrit grammar. When thunder rolls, when lightning flashes, when thunderclaps burst, and when the wind howls — they are the Vasat calls of that sacrifice.

But does this reflect the situation several centuries before the common era or is it the outcome of later migrations? OM I quench all beings. It seems not improbable that most of these teachers were authors of complete sets of Angas limbs of sacred books. Ritual Duties 3 He shall pay homage to gods, ancestors, humans, spirits, and seers.

The food of a man who is pure but not gener- ous and the food of a man who is generous but impure— having pondered over this, the gods pronounced them to be equal. Artha — Artha is one of the four aims of human life in Indian philosophy. Views Read Edit View history. The contrary appears the more probable assumption. Much of Book Two is devoted to the householder, and under this topic Apastamba deals with matters of civil law such as inheritance.

One piece of internal evidence, I believe, is central to estab- lishing a somewhat reliable chronology of these documents. In this regard they were like the medieval farmers of Russia or Europe, who willingly subjected themselves to the feudal structure and the laws of the Church that executed it. If a man spurns such food, his forefathers will not eat from him for fifteen years and the sacred fire will not convey his oblations. Apastamba, Baudhayana, Gautama, and Vasistha. Many scholars unfortunately derive their knowledge of these texts through secondary sources, which often flatten the intellectual landscape and describe these documents as presenting a uniform code of conduct.


The Kalpasutra of Apastamba has been preserved better than most probably because com- mentaries were written on it at a relatively early date. Incestuous Sex 13 A man who has had sex with the wife of an elder A 1.

The Grhyasutras deal with domestic rites and are therefore addressed to the head of the household. OM I quench the Brahman Seers.


These texts represent some of the earliest evidence for a phenomenon that became common apaztamba the versified Smrtis, namely the emergence of eponymous literature, that is, the ascription of treatises to eminent persons of the mythical past.

Interestingly, although vast majority of the people were not aware of these law books, because they were not allowed to read and study, they somehow remained subservient to these laws and accepted them as their lot.

This Hindu synthesis started to develop between Sutga and CE following the Vedic period, although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, cosmology, shared textual resources, and pilgrimage to sacred sites.