When you georeference your raster dataset, you define its location using dataset that you want to align with your projected data in ArcMap. The general steps for georeferencing a raster dataset are: Add the raster dataset that aligns with the projected data. – Add control points that link known raster. This tutorial will explain how to georeference a raster image in ArcGIS so it can then be used as an overlay or for digitizing purposes. In this example, a historic.

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Looking for a label? Click, to add a link, the mouse pointer on a known location on the raster dataset, then on a known location on the the referenced data. You can permanently transform your raster dataset after georeferencing it by using the Save to New command on the Georeference tab or by using the Warp tool. Each link can be turned on or off to evaluate what the result would be. In ArcMapadd the layers residing in map coordinates and add the raster dataset you want to georeference. This generally results in straight lines on the raster dataset mapped as straight lines in the warped raster dataset.

For a raster dataset in a geodatabase, Save will store the geodata transformation to an internal georeferencw file of the raster dataset. Zoom in on the center of the Image Viewer window. The inverse residual shows you the error in the pixels.

Georeferebce to Main Display. The blue lines between control points represent the residual or, error.

Many of these keyboard shortcuts are commonly used in ArcGIS. Get Help Request georeferenc from the Help Desk. This is commonly used when your data is already georeferenced, but a small shift will better line up your data.


Redraw the current extent of the Image Viewer window. Some of the Georeferencing options may be helpful to make your georeferencing task easier.

Georeferencing toolbar tools—Help | ArcGIS for Desktop

A column can be clicked to order the values in ascending or descending order. Thank you for your feedback. Spline transforms the source control points exactly to target control points; the pixels that are a distance from the control points are not guaranteed to be accurate.

Check this box to automatically show the user where the system thinks the corresponding to-point should be.

Georeferencing toolbar tools

This way you can be certain that you are referencing the same location in both qrcmap raster and aligned layers. The higher the transformation order, the more complex the distortion that can be corrected.

Georefwrence Zoom To Selected Link tool can zoom in on the highlighted link. This is a measure of how close your accuracy is, measured in pixels. The projective transformation can warp lines so that they remain straight.

It provides information regarding the links that have been created and the residual error associated with the links.

Georeferencing a raster to a vector—Help | ArcGIS for Desktop

When Autocomplete finds a more suitable link pair, it may adjust the from-point that you specified. Opens the Symbol Selector window to allow you to choose any point symbol as your from-point. Projective requires a minimum of four control points.

You can see how georsference parameters define how a raster’s rows and columns transform into map coordinates.

Georeferencing a raster to a vector

The toolbar has a collection of interactive tools for graphically controlling the georeferencing process. Automatically creates links for your source raster against a target raster. Shifts the raster to the current display extent area. You can manually shift the source layer, or you gepreference type an x,y value georeferejce the measurement text box. When georeferencing, you should look for well-defined objects within your images, such as road intersections or land features.


Zoom to the reference layer, and add the second control point in the same geographical location. However, you should add more than three control points, because if one control is inaccurate, it has a much greater impact on the transformation.

When you georeference your raster data, you define its location using map coordinates and assign the coordinate system of the map frame. If you are using polygons as armcap referenced layer, you can open the Effects toolbar to adjust the transparency as you add your links. Check this box to adjust the raster to immediately show the transformation, after each link is chosen. There are also other components that you can use to make georeferencing your data easier.

For example, if your target data gforeference occupies one-quarter of the area of your raster dataset, the points you could use to align the raster dataset would be confined to that area of overlap.

Display both the main ArcMap window and the Image Viewer window, side by side. The number of links you need to create depends on the complexity of the transformation you plan to use to transform the raster dataset to map coordinates.

To see all the datasets, adjust their order in the table of georecerence. Updates the display with each link that is created. Zoom in close on the control point site to maximize your precision.

Thus, the areas outside the overlap area are not likely to be properly aligned. Interpret the root mean square error When the general formula is derived and applied to the control point, a measure of the residual error is returned.