Centro de Investigación y Control de la Calidad (CICC) · Centro Nacional de Alimentación (CNA); Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Biotoxinas Marinas. Actividades del Laboratorio Comunitario de Referencia de Biotoxinas Marinas. In : Avances y Tendencias en Fitoplancton Tóxino y Biotoxinas (ISBN. XIII Reunión Ibérica de Algas Tóxicas y biotoxinas marinas Vigo (Spain), th June CLIMATE CHANGE DRIVERS IMPACTS.
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DSP toxins can be divided into different groups depending on chemical structure. Ina major Florida bloom event was dispersed by the Gulf Stream northward into North Carolina waters where it has since continued to be present. An unusual feature of Gymnodinium breve is the formation by wave action of toxic aerosols which can lead to asthma-like symptoms in humans.
In Novemberat least eight people in the Netherlands became ill after eating mussels Mytilus edulis cultivated at Killary Harbour, Ireland.
Changed patterns of land use, such as deforestation, can also cause shifts in phytoplankton species composition by increasing the concentrations of humic substances in land runoff. Some species produce basically harmless water discolorations. Symptoms of human PSP intoxication vary from a slight tingling or numbness to complete respiratory paralysis.
The toxin was found widely from California to Washington, and was also found unexpectedly in crabs, the first time this toxin was demonstrated in a crustacean. DSP toxin production may vary considerably among dinoflagellate species and among regional and seasonal morphotypes amrinas one species. It is not clear why some micro-algal species produce toxins.
Aecosan – Agencia Española de Consumo, Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición
Other algal species can be harmful to fish and invertebrates especially in biotoxjnas aquaculture systems by damaging or clogging their gills. Neurologic or neurotoxic shellfish poisoning NSP is caused by polyether brevetoxins produced by the unarmoured dinoflagellateGymnodinium breve also called Ptychodiscus breve, since called Karenia brevis. DSP incidences, or at least the presence of DSP biotxoinas, appear to be increasing and DSP toxins producing algae and toxic bivalves are frequently reported from new areas.
On the other hand, some species can bloom so densely, under exceptional conditions in sheltered bays, that they indiscriminately kill fish and invertebrates due to oxygen depletion. Mid-water exchange in regional seas may reduce the risk from polluted European harbour waters but may result in the transportation of potentially harmful phytoplankton species from marinss regional seas Macdonald and Davidson, At present, ciguatera is the most common type of marine food poisoning worldwide and, with an estimated 10 to 50 people worldwide suffering from the disease annually, it constitutes a global health problem De Fouw et al.
The number of dinoflagellate cells per litre of water needed to contaminate shellfish is also variable.
Furthermore, there marina micro-algal species about 75 which have the capacity to produce potent toxins called phycotoxins that can find their way through levels of the food chain e. The causative toxins, the ciguatoxins, accumulate through the food chain, from small herbivorous fish grazing on the coral reefs into organs of bigger carnivorous fish that feed on them Angibaud and Rambaud, ; Lehane, Shellfish grazing on these algae can accumulate the toxins but the shellfish itself is rather resistant to the harmful effects of marins toxins.
The explosive growths sometimes appear during changes in weather conditions but important contributing causes may be variations in upwellings, temperature, transparency, turbulence or salinity of the water, the concentration of dissolved nutrients, wind or surface illumination Bower et al.
These incidents prompted the regulatory authorities in the United States to conduct a massive survey of many marine species for the presence of DA. Fast-growing algae quickly strip away nutrients in the upper layer, leaving nitrogen and phosphorus only below the interface of the layers, called the pycnocline.
¿Qué son las biotoxinas?
At this time, ASP caused three deaths and cases of acute human poisoning following the consumption of blue mussels. These cysts sink to the bottom of the sea and accumulate at the borderline of water and sediment where they over-winter.
As a result, blooms can suddenly appear in surface waters that are devoid of nutrients and seem incapable of supporting such prolific growth Anderson, The conditions for an algal bloom are not yet fully elucidated but the phenomenon is probably influenced by climatic and hydrographic circumstances Van Egmond and Speijers, During the last 20 years, there seems to have been an increase in intoxications caused by PSP.
Many swim at speeds in excess of 10 metres a day, and some undergo daily vertical migration; they reside in surface water like sunbathers and then swim down to the pycnocline to take up nutrients at night. These neurotoxic symptoms were quite different from typical DSP toxicity Satake et al. DSP toxins are produced usually by dinoflagellates that belong to the genera Dinophysis spp.
In Septemberthe unexplained deaths of pelicans and cormorants in Monterey Bay, California were attributed to an outbreak of DA poisoning produced by a related diatom Pseudo-nitzschia australis. In general, red tides often occur when heating or freshwater runoff creates a stratified surface layer above colder, nutrient-rich waters.
Some algal species already produce toxins at low abundances of some hundreds of cells per litre, while other algal species must occur in some millions of cells per litre in order to cause any harm.
Non-motile algae cannot easily get to this layer whereas motile algae, such as the dinoflagellates, can thrive. The PSP toxins are a group of 21 closely related tetrahydropurines see Figure 2.
A few dozen countries have regulations for PSP toxins.